(Almost) Everything You Wanted to Know about Hyper and Hypokalemia

Disturbances in serum potassium are frequently encountered on both the floors and exams, thus making it an important concept to not only be familiar with but also understand. In this post, I will describe the etiology, consequences, and management of potassium disturbances relevant for the medical student on wards and residents early in their training….

A Quick & High-Yield Breakdown of Nephritic Syndrome

Nephritic syndrome key characteristics Alport Syndrome (hereditary nephritis) Caused by mutations in alpha 3, alpha 4, or alpha 5 type IV collagen Typically X-linked dominant inheritance (COL4A5), and rarely can be autosomal recessive or dominant (COL4A3 or COL4A4). “Can’t see, can’t pee, can’t hear a bee” (ocular disturbance, isolated hematuria, and sensorineural hearing loss) Typically…

A Quick & High-Yield Breakdown of Nephrotic Syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome key characteristics Common findings include: Proteinuria (frothy urine) Hyperlipidemia Hypoalbuminemia Edema Results from injury and disruption of podocytes and their foot processes.  When podocytes lose their foot processes their special structure or detach completely, there is exposed basement membrane and free filtration of albumin and other plasma proteins. Nephrotic range proteinuria is >3.5g…

A Quick Lesson on Minimal Change Disease

If you remember one thing about minimal change disease (MCD) from your preclinical courses, it’s probably that MCD is most commonly found in children. In fact, 70-90% of children with nephrotic syndrome are found to have MCD! In adults, this number is only around 10-15%. In this post, we’ll review the diagnosis of MCD with…

The Best Resources for your Med School Pre-Clinical Nephrology Years

If you’re like me, the first introduction to kidney physiology during the preclinical years of medical school can be overwhelming. Ions, transporters, RAAS; it all comes at you very fast. While lectures serve as a good starting point for framing this information, using supplemental resources can really help you hammer in the details. I have…

Nephrotic Syndrome Made Easy

Welcome to our nephrotic syndrome series! In this first post, you’ll find a general overview of the findings of nephrotic syndrome and how to approach diagnosis. Nephrotic syndrome is the constellation of signs and symptoms that arises when the glomerular filtration membrane is damaged and protein begins passing into the urine in large quantities. It…

An Intern’s Guide to AKI Work-up

Brought to you by the intern asking for the consult and the first year fellow responding! It’s intern year and you are working up another patient for an AKI. You have examined the patient and sent off some labs but do not yet have a satisfying explanation for your patient’s worsening kidney function. You and…

Let’s Take a Walk Through the Nephron

Kidney physiology can be a daunting topic. Don’t worry the Kidney Zone has you covering. Faculty Lead, John Roberts, has a video just for you. Below is a 30 min video that covers everything you need to know about the nephron. Take a look below. Tell us what you think.

12 Tips to Rock your Nephrology Rotation as a Medical Student

Here is my list of HONEST tips to help you become an outstanding medical student during your nephrology rotation! 1. Be on time: This might sound simple, but this is an easy way to get ahead in medical school. You don’t want your team searching for you at 9am! 2. Ask questions: You are on…