A Quick & High-Yield Breakdown of Nephritic Syndrome

Nephritic syndrome key characteristics Alport Syndrome (hereditary nephritis) Caused by mutations in alpha 3, alpha 4, or alpha 5 type IV collagen Typically X-linked dominant inheritance (COL4A5), and rarely can be autosomal recessive or dominant (COL4A3 or COL4A4). “Can’t see, can’t pee, can’t hear a bee” (ocular disturbance, isolated hematuria, and sensorineural hearing loss) Typically…

A Quick & High-Yield Breakdown of Nephrotic Syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome key characteristics Common findings include: Proteinuria (frothy urine) Hyperlipidemia Hypoalbuminemia Edema Results from injury and disruption of podocytes and their foot processes.  When podocytes lose their foot processes their special structure or detach completely, there is exposed basement membrane and free filtration of albumin and other plasma proteins. Nephrotic range proteinuria is >3.5g…

A Quick Lesson on Minimal Change Disease

If you remember one thing about minimal change disease (MCD) from your preclinical courses, it’s probably that MCD is most commonly found in children. In fact, 70-90% of children with nephrotic syndrome are found to have MCD! In adults, this number is only around 10-15%. In this post, we’ll review the diagnosis of MCD with…

Basics of Diuretics

You might recognize this image from one of our videos highlighting the physiology of the different segments of the nephron. This video can be found here. Using the information from that video, I want to summarize the mechanism of action and common side effects of various diuretics. Having a good understanding of diuretics demonstrates a…

An Intern’s Guide to AKI Work-up

Brought to you by the intern asking for the consult and the first year fellow responding! It’s intern year and you are working up another patient for an AKI. You have examined the patient and sent off some labs but do not yet have a satisfying explanation for your patient’s worsening kidney function. You and…

The Skinny on Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

If you’ve ever helped take care of a patient with chronic kidney disease, you’ve probably noticed that there is always a discussion about the patient’s calcium and phosphorus levels. Take a closer look in the chart and you’ll see that someone has probably checked the patient’s parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in the past. To understand…

12 Tips to Rock your Nephrology Rotation as a Medical Student

Here is my list of HONEST tips to help you become an outstanding medical student during your nephrology rotation! 1. Be on time: This might sound simple, but this is an easy way to get ahead in medical school. You don’t want your team searching for you at 9am! 2. Ask questions: You are on…